The Athenian military forces were said to be the most systemised and strategic army in the history of ancient times. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Assembly of the People. Chapter 12 focuses on the Athenian military during the fourth century. Athens military training: in Athens boys were sent to school to learn reading, writing, math, and other things from the age of 6 to 17. The hard training, the service and loyalty of its citizens, the State of Sparta was perhaps the first fully military based state in the ancient world. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Some states such as Athens, Aegina, Corinth, and Rhodes amassed fleets of warships, most commonly the trireme, which could allow these states to forge lucrative trading partnerships and deposit troops on foreign territory and so establish and protect colonies. b. Spartan children were given education and participated in traditional roles, whereas Athenian children were taught physical fitness and discipline. In 5th-century BCE Sparta, the basic element was the enomotiai (platoon) of 32 men. Athenian women were dedicated to the care and upkeep of the family home. What is a duty of older Athenian men? 16 Jan 2021. Other Greek cities set up democracies, most following the Athenian model, but none are as well documented as Athens' democracy. It is the job of the officer core of Hoplites - Thorakites Understands the rules and regulations of the Athenian military. The chief military units in the ancient classical world were the Greek phalanx and Roman legion. Assemblies or groups of elite citizens sanctioned war, and generals (strategoi) came to be accountable for their actions and were often elected for fixed terms or specific military operations. For a few hundred years, Sparta’s military made it a powerhouse. They also became too tempting a target for more unscrupulous leaders in later times, but still the majority of surviving military material comes from archaeological excavations at these sites. Even an hour long mini-session can be hugely effective, and participants really like this focus on application of learning. "Ancient Greek Warfare." The most successful strategy on the ancient battlefield was using hoplites in a tight formation called the phalanx. Start studying History Unit 3. Learn about the ancient Greeks at way, including how the army fought, famous battles and the Spartan soldier state in this KS2 History guide from BBC Bitesize. Songs were sung (the paian - a hymn to Apollo) and both sides would advance to meet each other. Sieges were usually long-drawn-out affairs with the principal strategy being to starve the enemy into submission. The military school in Sparta was designed not to teach reading, but teach fitness, obedience, and courage. There they learned gymnastics, wrestling, and did calisthenics. They are to send a pending request to the army and purchase the uniform. Athenian democracy developed around the 6th century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica.Athenian democracy is often described as the first known democracy in the world. (3), Athenian girls were not officially schooled, however. Wheeled siege towers, first used by the Carthaginians and copied by Dionysius I of Syracuse against Motya in 397 BCE, bolt-throwing artillery (gastraphetes), stone throwing apparatus (lithoboloi) and even flame-throwers (at Delion in 424 BCE) began a trend for commanders to be more aggressive in siege warfare. Nonetheless, some women, known as hetaeras , did receive an education with the specific purpose of entertaining men, similar to the Japanese geisha tradition. When all of these rituals were out of the way, fighting could commence but even then it was routine to patiently wait for the enemy to assemble on a suitable plain nearby. In the early stages of Greek Warfare in the Archaic period, training was haphazard and even weapons could be makeshift, although soldiers were usually paid, if only so that they could meet their daily needs. Total solved problems on the site: 9145995 "Ancient Greek Warfare." Evolving from armed bands led by a warrior leader, city militia of part-time soldiers, providing their own equipment and perhaps including all the citizens of the city-state or polis, began to move warfare away from the control of private individuals and into the realm of the state. The Athenian military was the military force of Athens, one of the major city-states (poleis) of Ancient Greece. Books They were allowed to learn in the privacy of their own homes, but as a result, most Athenian women had primarily domestic educations. Rod Powers was the U.S. Military expert for The Balance Careers and was a retired Air Force First Sergeant with 22 years of active duty service. Last modified March 27, 2018. The lochoi was the basic unit of the phalanx - a line of well-armed and well-armoured hoplite soldiers usually eight to twelve men deep which attacked as a tight group. Athenian women were dedicated to the care and upkeep of the family home. It is said to have been organised by the Theban commander Gorgidas in 378 BC and to have played a crucial role in the Battle of Leuctra. It had the best soldiers in the world whose whole life was devoted to discipline, obedience, and self-denial.Athens, on the other hand, had a strong military, but Athenian society was also devoted to education, art, science, and democracy. There were no permanent school for higher education until 390 BC, when teachers like Aristotle began establishing academies for higher learning. Physical training covers 12% of the overall training and includes track and field events a… To provide greater mobility in battle the hoplite came to wear lighter armour such as a leather or laminated linen corselet (spolades) and open-faced helmet (pilos). Evolving from armed bands led by a warrior leader, city militia of part-time soldiers, providing their own equipment and perhaps including all the citizens of the city-state or polis, began to move warfare away from the control of private individuals and into the realm of the state. Boys from families that could afford it continued to remain in school for four more years. It was typical for 10% of the booty (a dekaten) to be dedicated in thanks to the gods at one of the great religious sanctuaries such as Delphi or Olympia. The military of ancient Athens was composed by its own citizens. The army consisted of horsemen and hoplites, footsoldiers. This theme of Spartan military prowess is exemplified when Brasidas proceeds to impart his stern education, gained through a lifetime of institutionalized training and deprivation, to the non-Lacedaemon auxiliaries he recruits and commands. Most hoplites would have been accompanied by a slave acting as a baggage porter (skeuophoroi) carrying the rations in a basket (gylion) along with bedding and a cooking pot. Military training includes day and night field training. More mobile and multi-weapon warfare now became the norm. Young Athenian boys were tutored at home until the age of six or seven, and then they were sent to neighborhood schools for primary education until they were 14 years of age. Slaves also acted as attendants to the wounded as only the Spartan army had a dedicated medical officer (iatroi). No excuses can be made if anyone in this rank slips up on protocol as by this stage it should be second nature. Naturally, defenders responded to these new weapons with thicker and stronger walls with convex surfaces to better deflect missiles. In English, when you are talking about someone personality, there are some great adjectives that you can use to do this. List of words to describe someone in English with examples and pictures. There were no uniforms or insignia and as soon as the conflict was over the soldiers would return to their farms. Training that occurs way in advance of applying the skills fails. It consisted of a ruling class (Spartans), middle class, and a slave class. What happens to a Spartan male at age 30? The Athenian democracy of Greece was the first established democracy that lasted for around 186 years. Towards the end of the Classical Period, armies could be resupplied by ship and larger equipment could be transported using wagons and mules which came under the responsibility of men too old to fight. 4. War booty, although not always the primary motive for conflict, was certainly a much-needed benefit for the victor which allowed him to pay his troops and justify the expense of the military campaign. Strategies and deception, the ‘thieves of war’ (klemmata), as the Greeks called them, were employed by the more able and daring commanders. What advice does Pericles give to the parents and widows of the deceased soldiers? Other tasks in the category: Arts More task. At age 18, regardless of social status, all Athenian boys were required to attend military school for two years, after which they were free to live out their lives as they saw fit. Young Athenian boys were tutored at home until the age of six or seven, and then they were sent to neighborhood schools for primary education until they were 14 years of age. Armies also became more structured, split into separate units with hierarchies of command. Armies became more cosmopolitan with the inclusion of resident foreigners, slaves, mercenaries, and neighbouring allies (either voluntary or through compulsion in the case of Sparta’s perioikoi). Pericles, Athenian statesman largely responsible for the full development, in the later 5th century bce, of both the Athenian democracy and the Athenian empire, making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece. The mainstay of any Greek army was the hoplite. The lowest social class of citizens in ancient Athens. Spartan was one of the divisions of inhabitants of Laconia, and the Spartan was well-known as the highest class in the society, they were the governors, rulers and soldiers. War became more professional, more innovative, and more deadly, reaching its zenith with the Macedonian leaders Philip II and Alexander the Great. -Athens: Did light labor around the house, lives similar to owners', never replaced free labor-Sparta: Helots did ALL the work so Spartans could focus on military training (so their lives were not similar to owners' and did replace free labor) Fighting was usually in the summer so tents were rarely needed and even food could be pillaged if the fighting was in enemy territory. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Even if they were married they had to live in military schools until they were 30. An Athenian male has to train for two years in the military services while a Spartan male starts training at age 12 and spends many years training. Athens is the capital and the largest city of Greece. Spartan and Athenian civilizations both grew as a result of their militaries and both civilizations have had an influence on Western civilization. The training of memory is a drill that is akin to that of the body and to military practice. Terms thetes. The hoplites were the main decisive force in each and every battle that took place from the archaic period (~700 BC) to hellenistic period (~250 BC) between greek participants. In the early stages of Greek Warfare in the Archaic period, training was haphazard and even weapons could be makeshift, although soldiers were usually paid, if only so that they could meet their daily needs.There were no uniforms or insignia and as soon as the conflict was over the soldiers would return to their farms. Kratos is an unexpectedly brutish word. U.S. The trophy could be in the form of captured weapons and armour or an image of Zeus; on occasion memorials to the fallen were also set up. Part 2- Work with a small group to write a summary of the funeral oration in modern language. We can distinguish the land army into 3 main forces; The hoplites , the cavalry and the skirmishers. The military of ancient Athens was composed by its own citizens. When boys turned 18 in Athens they were required to go to military school and learn how to fight in battle. Spartan and Athenian women would compete in exercise and sports such as discus, gym and wrestling. Describe Athenian military training: Which military training was better and why? Important rituals had to be performed following victory which included the recovering of the dead and the setting up of a victory trophy (from tropaion, meaning turning point in the conflict) at the exact place on the battlefield where victory became assured. Warfare moved away from one-off battles fought in a few hours to long-drawn-out conflicts which could last for years. Unlike any regular department, the DMST is not under any college-level unit (e.g., the […] They could even block enemy harbours and launch amphibious landings. Also on board were small contingents of hoplites and archers, but the principal tactic in naval warfare was ramming not boarding. Spartan military training: Spartan boys were taken from their families at the age of 6 or 7, and were sent to live in a military school until they were 30 years old. Spartan boys started their military training at age 7, when they left home and entered the Agoge. Also, at least for some states like Sparta, fighting could be prohibited on certain occasions such as religious festivals and for all states during the great Panhellenic games (especially those at Olympia). C: describes the military training of Sparta and Athens. These sites became veritable treasuries and, effectively, museums of weapons and armour. Whilst there were long periods of peace and many examples of friendly alliances, the powerful motives of territorial expansion, war booty, revenge, honour, and the defence of liberty ensured that throughout the Archaic and Classical periods the Greeks were regularly engaged in warfare both at home and abroad. Moving in unison the phalanx could push and attack the enemy whilst minimising each man’s exposure. Boys born of the Spartan class began training as a soldier at age 7 and girls were trained to bear and raise strong children. military personnel, in contrast, required consistent management from generals whose skills they respected. Hoplites responded to these developments in tactics with new formations such as the defensive square (plaision), used to great effect (and not only in defence) by Spartan general Brasidas in 423 BCE against the Lyncestians and again by the Athenians in Sicily in 413 BCE. If the youth can not afford the uniform they are to direct message Arkhon AnaxandridesII for funding. However, this gentlemanly approach in time gave way to more subtle battle arrangements where surprise and strategy came to the fore. Being in the largest city of Athens where there was a large amount of diversity many types of people were able to serve as council men or judges. A similar organisation applied to the armies of Corinth, Argos, and Megara. Javelin throwers (akonistai), archers (toxotoi) and slingers (sphendonētai) using stones and lead bullets could harry the enemy with attacks and retreats. 1 Forces 1.1 Infantry 1.2 Cavalry 1.3 Navy 2 References 3 Sources The mainstay of the Athenian army, like practically all Greek armies, was the heavy armed infantry soldier, the hoplite. The short duration of conflicts in the Greek world was often because of the poor logistics supplying and maintaining the army in the field. When each of them captured soldiers in battle, they made them slaves. Once boys turned 20 they graduated military school. Warfare in the Classical World: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Weapons... Men of Bronze: Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece. Athens still had a large army, but unlike Sparta it didn't concentrate only just on military. Add your answer and earn points. Spartan government was a strictly regimented military state. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Even if they were married they had to live in military schools until they were 30. This was done through the consultation of oracles such as that of Apollo at Delphi and through animal sacrifices (sphagia) where a professional diviner (manteis) read omens (ta hiera), especially from the liver of the victim and any unfavourable signs could certainly delay the battle. It was largely similar to other armies of the region – see Ancient Greek warfare. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Greek_Warfare/. Able commanders arranged their fleets in a long front so that it was difficult for the enemy to pass behind (periplous) and ensure his ships were sufficiently close to prevent the enemy going through a gap (diekplous). However, the trireme had disadvantages in that there was no room for sleeping quarters and so ships had to be drydocked each night, which also prevented the wood becoming waterlogged. A. Spartan children had military training and studied foreign languages, whereas athenian children were encouraged in civic participation and religion. According to Gonz’alez (2014: 14) Cite This Work COMPLETION OF RECRUITMENT. The young men learned between the age of 8 and 18 of several subjects such as grammar, music, and art of public speaking. It was largely similar to other armies of the region. Get an answer to your question “How did the Spartan emphasis on military training differ from Athenian ideas on how to train young men? 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