Watershed management aims to care for natural resources in a way that supports human needs for water, food, fiber, energy, and habitation, while supporting other agreed attributes linked to recreation, esthetics, and/or ecologic function. Watershed management is a term used to describe the process of implementing land use practices and water management practices to protect and improve the quality of the water and other natural resources within a watershed by managing the use of those land and water resources in a comprehensive manner. A watershed can be small, such as a modest inland lake or a single county. Within the participatory approach, the assessment is also an opportunity to gather stakeholders together and build a shared vision planning (SVP) of the watershed, i.e., “computer simulation models of water systems built, reviewed, and tested collaboratively with all stakeholders” [17]. Watershed management projects are generally anticipated not only to provide local on-site benefits at the micro-watershed level but also to offer positive externalities in the form of valuable environmental services downstream and to provide a means of correcting downstream negative externalities within the larger watershed. Nevertheless, after a few years of experimentation of the process, skepticism arose. (v) World Bank Assisted Integrated Watershed Development Project: Objectives: To arrest the problems of environmental degradation and promote sustainable increase in agriculture production and to enhance vegetative technology of soil and water conservation for rain water conservation and for increasing crop, forage, fuel wood and timber yield of the area. A watershed is simply the geographic area through which water flows across the land and drains into a common body of water, whether a … In the early days of watershed projects, disregarding the optimal social unit resulted in failure of the projects as they could not accomplish effective watershed governance. Watershed is thus the land and water area, which contributes runoff to a common point. A Watershed Management Plan is an important tool for any group looking to improve their local lake, river or stream. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 7.1. (2006) cites this as “catchment closure,” whereby water harvesting upstream accumulates groundwater locally and then intensive pumping depletes the shallow aquifer. [15] is an excellent example of this evolution in the last 30 years. In response to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) public health pandemic, the Department of Watershed Management (DWM) has implemented actions to adjust its operations and services to ensure the safety and health of employees and members of the public. However, research implies potentially severe trade-offs between these two approaches. Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within the watershed boundary. ), Coping With Water Scarcity: An Action Framework for Agriculture and Food Security. These programs did not have any common objective or framework. Good watershed management helps to … The factors affecting water availability and demand. For example, the check dam led to a rise in groundwater levels, which led an increasing number of villagers to build shallow tubewells and use these tubewells rather than the check dam for irrigation water; this development lowered the incentives for limiting watershed grazing and participating in communal activities. n. 1. Of late, the pendulum has swung in the opposite direction, and now, most projects operate at the village level, disregarding hydrologic linkages between micro watersheds. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT. b. Aim of Watershed Management The aim of watershed management is to develop Primary resources of land and water The size of a watershed (also called a drainage basin or catchment) is defined on several scales—referred to as its Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUC)—based on the geography that is most relevant to its specific area. A watershed management plan identifies problems and threats to water resources and develops a framework to address these issues within a specific watershed. These three interdependent resources can bee managed collectively, conveniently, simultaneously and efficiently on watershed basis (unit of management.) A watershed, also called a "drainage basin" in North America, is an area in which all water flowing into it goes to a common outlet or body of water, such as the same estuary or reservoir.Watersheds themselves consist of all surface water and include lakes, streams, reservoirs, and wetlands, as well as all groundwater and aquifers. The important question regarding the trade-off between operating at an optimal hydrologic unit and an optimal social unit is its severity. Tomer, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2014, V. Ratna Reddy, in Current Directions in Water Scarcity Research, 2019. watershed meaning: 1. an event or period that is important because it represents a big change in how people do or…. Tomer, in Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005. This can be done by local authorities (municipal water management) or it can be done by individuals at home (when we manage how we use our own water supplies). Rainwater harvesting means collection and storage of rainwater by some mechanism to make water available for future use. Under watershed management task the water management is one of the very important components. The assessment includes land use, rainfall, runoff of streams and rivers, and groundwater. About the Watershed Management Program. At the turn of the 21st century, many countries adopted the Agenda 21 guidelines and IWRM—a 2008 survey showed that 22% of the world countries had implemented IWRM plans, while 37% partially implemented it [12]—which has been defined as “a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems” [1]. (a) Selection of best solution to problems identified, (b) Application of the solution to the problems of the land. c. Over exploitation of resources should be minimized. Watershed management has existed for millennia [7]; nevertheless, a holistic and bottom-up approach [8] has only emerged since the 1970s. Objectives 4. The study by Batchelor et al. (2003) noticed that successful water harvesting in upper watersheds came at the expense of lower watershed areas. The Australian Water Reform extensively related in Ref. Watershed is classified depending upon the size, drainage, shape and land use pattern. Watershed management in this must take account of the following: The relative lack of treatment of the uppermost parts of the watershed which are forested, uninhabited, and directly under the control of the state Forest Department, A large number of structures already built on the (smaller) drainage lines, implying that there are few suitable sites left to build more numbers of large RWH structures, such as check dams. Meaning of Watershed Management: Watershed management in the broader sense is informed by an undertaking to maintain the equilibrium between elements of the natural eco system or vegetation, land or water on the one hand and human activities on the other hand. IWRM is included in a virtuous circle of knowledge fueled by the participatory approach so that institutions can play their decision-making role in the most transparent way possible. Types of Watershed Management 3. Water resource management plays a vital role in sustainable development of watershed which is possible only through the implementation of various water harvesting technique. After the candid years and skeptic years, IWRM has evolved from theory to practice. 2. the principles of long-term watershed management, 3. the elements of successful watershed management frameworks, and 4. the benefits of the watershed management approach. Watershed management programs have usually paid attention to on-site interventions and their benefits. First, projects with high investment in social organization may not be replicable beyond a small number of cases. Watershed Management is a holistic approach to managing water resources for quantity and quality within a watershed. Most structures built on the upper reaches of the main streams flowing into the reservoir have been broken by the monsoon rainwater carrying branches and boulders, and there is not much space in villages to build additional RWH structures. Such views ignore the following: (1) how the type of catchment land use influences the impact of increased vegetation cover on stream flows (including water quality), in different agroecologies; (2) how the nature of vegetation (whether shallow-rooted grasses and shrubs or deep-rooted trees) determines the impact of increased vegetation cover on the consumptive use of water from the soil profile and groundwater system of the catchment (Oliveira et al., 2005) and the stream flows (Bosch and Hewett, 1982), and how these impacts can change across agroecologies; (3) the hydraulic interdependence between groundwater and surface water in a catchment and therefore the impact of change in groundwater withdrawal on stream flows downstream (Leblanc et al., 2012); and, (4) rainwater (precipitation) is the source of surface water, soil moisture, and groundwater in the catchment. Watershed management is a primary and essential component of environmental planning, which is usually focused on the built environment. Second, operating on the basis of a feasible social unit (a village micro watershed instead of a macro watershed that crosses administrative boundaries) in fact trades one set of problems for another. Nope. In order to have a practical solution to above problem it is necessary to go through four phases for a full scale watershed management. The hydrological assessment crosses the sectors of the economy, energy, agriculture, and environment [16] and looks for water quantity, quality, and demand [10]. ; To protect, conserve and improve the land of a watershed for more efficient and sustained production. A shared vision is a preamble to bottom-up management like that shown in the Matarraña catchment in Spain [19]. Often international agencies and scholars, aggressively promoting small-scale rainwater harvesting in catchments, view rainwater as separate from groundwater and surface water (COMMANS, 2005; Stockholm Environment Institute, 2009). The competition and conflicts over freshwater resources are intensifying. It involves management of land surface and vegetation so as to conserve the soil and water for immediate and long term benefits to the farmers, community and society as a whole. Each watershed is unique in physiography, ecology, climate, water quality, land use, and human culture. The hilly and rocky Upper Sukhi watershed has relatively high rainfall, occurring in a few months in a year resulting in high-velocity flows that do not allow water harvesting structures to remain intact and functional along the main streams. Watershed is that land area which drains or contributes runoff to a common outlet. Watershed is defined as a geo-hydrological unit draining to a common point by a system of drains. A watershed or a catchment is a piece of land or an area that drains rainwater into a lake, river or stream. Pollution can be aggravated by those extremes. But none of them have provided any clear guidelines and objectives or institutional framework for implementing the program. In this case, watershed development checks the movements of both surface runoff and groundwater toward downstream. All the area under winter crops (mostly maize) and the small area under the summer groundnut crop are irrigated. With the worsening of the groundwater table downstream, more intensive drilling of wells is needed, which the poor could often not afford, leading to inequitable distribution and use of water (Calder, 2005). Concepts of Watershed Management Soil, vegetation and water are most important vital natural resources for the existence of the man and his animals. However, the micro-watershed approach encounters adversity when it comes to scaling up. Watershed technology is used in Rainfed areas. Meaning of Watershed Management 2. watershed synonyms, watershed pronunciation, watershed translation, English dictionary definition of watershed. Conversely, if water resources decrease, the concentration of pollutants will increase, increasing their impact on water quality. Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic good. Whether these actions were of benefit also to the downstream location or were the best possible approach to minimizing negative externalities was often not ascertained. The word “watershed” introduced in 1920 was used for the “water parting boundaries”. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. watershed management program are: 1) conservation, up-gradation and utilization of natural endowments such as land, water, plant, animal and human resources in a harmonious and integrated manner with low-cost, simple, e/ective and replicable Ü. Mander, in Encyclopedia of Ecology, 2008. Darghouth et al. Watershed management aims to care for natural resources in a way that supports human needs for water, food, fiber, energy, and habitation, while supporting other agreed attributes linked to recreation, esthetics, and/or ecologic function. Watershed management is aimed at land and water resources, and is applied to an area of land that drains to a defined location along a stream or river. Similarly, stakeholder involvement and participation normally covered on-site requirements of local farmers, and the spatial dimension was tackled through community-based planning of their region. The origin of watershed management is closely linked to forestry; for example, the uncontrolled Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners, and policy-makers at all levels. Through an understanding of the interrelated processes that combine to govern water and sediment supply in a watershed, it is possible to implement engineering modifications or land-management practices to intentionally alter the hydrological function of a watershed. V. Ratna Reddy, ... Chiranjeevi Tallapragada, in Integrated Approaches to Sustainable Watershed Management in Xeric Environments, 2019. (c) Furrow/Ridges and Furrow ridge method of cultivation across the slope. Wells also provide water for drinking and livestock although there is a shortage in summer months even in normal rainfall years, which affects the last irrigations for the winter (rabi) crop. Watershed-management experiences from around the globe have dealt with a wide range of issues. The District takes a watershed approach to managing water and water-related resources within its boundaries. Watershed management is thus appropriate use and management of soil, water and vegetation to result in optimum use of water and for preservation of the soil layer. WSM in its modern or comprehensive form is relatively of recent origin in Bhutan, though it is part of a number of legislations since 1974 (National Forest Policy). Cropped and irrigated areas have increased in the last decade, with a preference for longer-duration cotton, a cash crop. This section introduces the principles of the watershed approach and the … f. Erosion control and prevention of soil, degradation and conservation of soil and water. ; To manage and utilize the runoff water for the useful purpose. Water is essential for our survival. Watershed Management. The main objectives of the program include sustaining the flows of natural resources and better stewardship of watersheds providing the country and its people with goods and services in ways that maintain the long-term productive capacity of natural resources without damaging the environment (Tsering, 2011). Calder et al. Watershed is thus the land and water area, which contributes runoff to a common point. It is an aspect of water cycle management. A wide range of quantitative and qualitative methods are available and combine disciplines such as economics, hydrology, hydraulics, environmental sciences, and sociology. Such alterations are usually undertaken to rehabilitate, protect, or enhance desired functions of a watershed for the end result that the managers are seeking. More wells and RWH structures built in the last decade has supported a growth in irrigated agriculture in (micro) watershed villages. Research has revealed that the micro-watershed approach may be producing hydrologic problems that would be best addressed by operating at a macro-watershed scale. Watershed: Definition: “Watershed can be defined as a unit of area covers all the […] Objectives: Mitigate the effect of drought in the desert area and restore ecological balance. Copyright 10. Therefore investment in upstream cannot be justified by their on-site benefits alone and can only pass economic reasoning when downstream benefits are embodied. Practices. This phase takes care of the general health of the watershed and ensures normal functioning. IWRM should also deal with the variability of water in time and space, and manage risks associated with extreme variations of the resource. When rain water, also referred to as stormwater, hits the earth, it either soaks into the ground, or it runs over the surface until it reaches a surface water. 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