Firstly, we could not compare the severity of depression between patients because no standardized instrument was used to measure the severity of depressive symptoms. Secondly, depressed patients who had a previous diagnosis of BD were excluded from the study. Rapid speech or movement. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Agitation, restlessness, or irritability. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire appears to be a feasible method for improving the recognition of bipolar disorder. Depression is a common mental health disorder characterized by sadness, lethargy, and loss of interest in daily life activities. CAS  The internal consistency of the translated instrument was almost as good (Cronbach's alpha 0.79 vs. 0.90) as in the original validation study [3]. Secondly, because impairment in functioning is not necessary to diagnose hypomania, requiring impairment on the MDQ to determine BD will reduce its sensitivity for detecting BD-II [19]. The Chinese version of the MDQ had good psychometric features in screening bipolar disorders from depressive patients with mood disorders when part two and part three of the MDQ were ignored. DESCRIPTION: The MFQ consists of a series of descriptive phrases regarding how the subject has been feeling or acting recently.Codings reflect whether the phrase was descriptive of the subject most of the time, sometimes, or not at all in the past two weeks. It is therefore vital that the MDQ is also sensitive to bipolar II. We found the Mood Disorder Questionnaire to be a feasible method for improving recognition of bipolar disorder, which has clearly been a problem. Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depressive illness, is a severe chronic mood disorder characterised by episodes of mania, hypomania, and alternating or intertwining episodes of depression ().No biomarker has yet been approved for diagnosis of any mental disorder and clinical criteria endure. The mean ages of the two groups were 38.2 ± 8.0 years and 39.1 ± 12.5 years, respectively. PubMed Google Scholar. The screening for bipolar disorder was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry at Jorvi Hospital, part of the Helsinki University Central Hospital, from 1st–31st October, 2001. It is useful in psychiatric settings only if recognition without it is a problem, which according to our findings is certainly true. Against a SCID diagnosis of bipolar I or II by trained research interviewers used as the “gold standard,” the sensitivity was 28.1% and the specificity was 97.2%. PubMed  This latter group included four of the five subjects (5% of the total) with negative MDQ who were clinically suspected of possibly suffering from bipolar disorder. The first survey of the DASP project was carried out in 13 major psychiatric hospitals and units of general hospitals between September 1, 2010 and February 28, 2011. Whether screening is actually beneficial is related to the quality of current routine diagnostic procedures. 1997, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press. 1.2 Mental Health Disorders and Human Capital Formation Read the overview below to gain an understanding of this illness and explore the previews of other articles examining different aspects of depression. The MDQ consists of three parts. The behaviour becomes uncommon when it is long-lasting and violates the rights of others. Approximately 75% of adolescents in the US1 and more than 90% in Korea2 and Japan3 sleep less than the recommended 8–10 h a night.4 Previously, the maturational delay in bedtime combined with early morning school were the principal reasons for shortened sleep in adolescence.5 In recent years, increased electronic media use, higher homework load, and reduced parental control have … The MDQ could differentiate BD-I patients from BD-II when only part one was used in the ROC curve analysis (P<0.05, AUC 0.60, Figure 3) and the best screening cutoff between BD-I and BD-II was 10 (SEN 0.37, SPE 0.83, PPV 0.58, NPV 0.59). Yes Clinical trials have indicated that the MDQ has a high rate of accuracy; it is able to identify seven out of ten people who have bipolar disorder and screen out nine out of … Because the mean MDQ score of the patients with BD-I was highest and that of UD was lowest, and MDQ could screen BD-II patients from UD patients by ROC analysis, we did not compare BD-I and UD in the ROC analysis. 10.1016/S0165-0327(98)00112-8. Fourth Edition, Text Revision. We suggest that the optimal cut-offs for bipolar II disorders should be further investigated in larger and representative patient samples. The sensitivity was considerably less than that found in the psychiatric outpatient group. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Google Scholar. Archiv Psychiatr Nervenkr. Bipolar disorder, particularly type II, remains commonly unrecognized in psychiatric settings. Altogether, 1,757 patients were invited to participate in this study; 270 refused to participate or failed to complete the interview. When only part one of the MDQ was used, the best screening cutoff between depressed patients with BD and depressed patients with UD was 7 in this study. Eating disorders (EDs) are serious psychiatric illnesses that have high rates of morbidity and mortality, and low long-term recovery rates. Mood Disorders Center, Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, Affiliation Google Scholar. Conceived and designed the experiments: TBL LJL XPW. It is therefore clear that the ROC-analysis overestimated sensitivity and underestimated specificity, and cannot be compared with respective estimates from unselected samples [3]. Benazzi F: Antidepressant-associated hypomania in outpatient depression: A 203-case study in private practice. A depressive disorder is not a passing blue mood but rather persistent feelings of sadness and worthlessness and a lack of desire to engage in formerly pleasurable activities. Twenty-nine (27%) subjects had negative MDQ but 4–6 positive items in question 1. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091895.g002. The Chinese version of the MDQ (C-MDQ) has been validated in China [13]. PLoS ONE 9(4): Journals related to Conduct Disorders 10.1176/appi.ajp.157.11.1873. Our study population was not a selected sample of patients with mood disorders, but rather an ordinary sample of secondary care … Terms and Conditions, This section is dedicated to covering all aspects of a wide range of mood disorders. No, Is the Subject Area "Psychometrics" applicable to this article? These settings were evenly distributed in China and served both catchment area patients and patients from neighboring areas. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091895.g004. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis,decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. A depressive episode is not required for BD-I diagnosis, but it frequently occurs. Kim et al (2008) found that a modified scoring of the MDQ (ignoring questions on the co-occurrence of symptoms and functional impairment) yielded an SEN of 0.68 and an SPE of 0.63 for BD, whereas the values were 0.29 and 0.77, respectively, using the standard MDQ scoring [9]. Firstly, by the ROC curve analysis, the MDQ could not screen BD patients from UD patients when either 7 or 6 was regarded as the optimal cutoff. Lifetime prevalence estimates are 1.0% for BD-I, 1.1% for BD-II, and 2.4% for subthreshold BD in the general adult population (aged ≥18 years) in the United States [1]. Am J Psychiatry.2000;157:1873-1875. Several methodological limitations should be noted, some suggesting caution in interpreting the findings. Yes 2003, 160: 178-180. When all three parts were used, the MDQ could not be used as a screening tool in clinical settings. Some major factors involve child abuse or neglect, school failure, traumatic life experiences and brain damage. Mood Disorders Mood disorders is a psychological disorder characterized by the elevation or lowering of a person's mood, such as depression or bipolar disorder. All members of the research team were qualified psychiatrists. Correspondence to The APA proposes that postpartum psychiatric disorders be considered as one condition with three subclasses: adjustment reaction with depressed m… The Mood Disorder Questionnaire appears to be a feasible method for improving the recognition of bipolar disorder. No, Is the Subject Area "Emotions" applicable to this article? The instrument was found to have relatively good sensitivity (0.73) and very good specificity (0.90) in samples comprising mostly patients with uni- and bipolar mood disorders in academic centers [3]; in a further general population study the sensitivity turned out to be very low (0.28), but specificity (0.97) remarkably high [4]. Determine what stressors are present and the time course of Therefore, we suggested that only part one of the MDQ (13 items of manic/hypomanic symptoms) should be scored if the MDQ is to be used as a screening tool for the patients with mood disorders in clinical settings. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine whether the patients with different mood disorders (BD, BD-I, BD-II, MDD) could be differentiated and to ascertain the sensitivity (SEN) and specificity (SPE) at various cutoffs. OM, HV, SL, MP and PA interviewed patients and commented on the manuscript. In a large community cohort in Europe, the prevalence of bipolar disorder (BD-I and BD-II) based on the DSM-IV criteria was 5.5% [2]. No, Is the Subject Area "Depression" applicable to this article? Article  Symptoms may include extreme sadness, low energy, anxiety, crying episodes, irritability, and changes in sleeping or eating patterns. The term depression is often used to refer to any of several depressive disorders. Wrote the paper: HCY. Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) includes 13 questions associated with bipolar disorder symptoms and is available in Spanish. Nevertheless, even using the standard cut-offs several patients with previously unrecognised bipolar II disorders were identified, and in fact, ignoring the last question completely resulted in lower specificity. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire [3] is a recently developed and simple screening method already validated in a US multicenter study. In this study, we found that if only part one of MDQ was used, MDQ could differentiate between BD and UD, between BD-II and UD, and between BD-I and BD-II. J Affect Disord. Of the self-rating mania/hypomania questionnaires developed to screen for BD [7], [8], the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is one that has been used effectively in many countries [7], [9]–[14]. Forty subjects (37%) were positive in the MDQ screen. Division of Mood Disorders, Shenzhen Mental Health Centre, Shenzhen Key Lab for Psychological Healthcare, Guangdong, China, * E-mail: liutbsz@gmail.com (TBL); llj2920@163.com (LJL), Affiliation Our study population was not a selected sample of patients with mood disorders, but rather an ordinary sample of secondary care psychiatric patients, schizophrenia excluded. Demographics and illness characteristics of the first 261 patients. Yes Yes Hirschfeld RM, Williams JB, Spitzer RL, et al. Mental Health Institute, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan, China, Affiliation 1,487 being treated for MDD or UD at 12 mental health centers across China, completed the MDQ and subsequently examined by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Ghaemi SN, Boiman EE, Goodwin FK: Diagnosing bipolar disorder and the effect of antidepressants: a naturalistic study. Our findings support the value and feasibility of screening for bipolar disorder with the MDQ in psychiatric settings. Then please print the test results and consider sharing them with your doctor or therapist. 2000, 157: 1873-1875. Although acute episodes are significant, it is the recurrent nature of the illness that has implications for longer-term functioning and places it as the 4th leading cause of disability adjusted life years in people aged 10–24 (Gore et al. Curtailment in adolescents is estimated to fall into the 2 % –5 % range ( APA, 2013.! 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