Nine teenage girls aged under 18 were rescued from a spa in Nonthaburi, Thailand. The Royal Ordinance on Management of Migrant Workers, which took effect in March 2018, required employers to provide workers a copy of their employment contracts and to cover costs (excluding personal expenses such as passports, medical checks, and work permits) associated with bringing migrant workers to Thailand and back to their home countries when employment ends, such as recruitment fees and transportation costs. In an attempt to increase victims’ willingness to participate as witnesses, Thai courts admitted advance and video testimony as evidence in trials; courts conducted 24 advanced witness hearings in 2018, four of which utilized video conferencing. Thailand rescued a record 1,807 victims of human trafficking last year, according to data that campaigners on Monday said raised concerns about the nation’s ability to support survivors. However, in recent the years the country has come under international scrutiny for failing to combat human trafficking, especially in its lucrative seafood industry. The government coordinated with these service centers to provide heath checks, collect biometric and personal data, and issue work permits to 1,187,803 workers in 2018. The 400 staff at Shiva hotels — from recep­tion­ists to human resources staff to clean­ers — will be trained as part of a com­pany-wide cam­paign to […] It is a destination-side hub of exploitation in the Greater Mekong Sub-region, for both sex and labour exploitation. BANGKOK, April 18 — At Bangkok’s main Suvarnabhumi airport, a video repeats scenes of tourists visiting Thailand’s sunny beaches and its vibrant nightlife, but at the end comes a warning. In 2018, the Department of Labour Protection and Welfare conducted 1,906 inspections at high-risk workplaces, including sugarcane farms, garment factories, shrimp and fish processing facilities, pig farms, and poultry farms, finding 388 workplaces operating in violation of labor laws. 4 A survey conducted by the International Organisation for Ethnic Thais are trafficked from poor areas of Chiang Rai, Nong Khai, and Phayao to the tourist areas. In addition, law enforcement officials cooperated with foreign counterparts to investigate Thai traffickers abroad and foreign suspects in Thailand; these efforts resulted in the arrests of suspected traffickers in Cambodia, Malaysia, and the United States. "Therefore we hope the situation in Thailand will be better, and it will be recognised by the international community.". Whether the reality of sex tourism is a form of economic exploitation or a violation of human rights, the country image of Thailand has been jeopardised by this association of Thailand with sex tourism over a long period. Authorities assisted in repatriating 201 foreign victims exploited in Thailand (111 in 2017) and facilitated the return of 103 Thais exploited abroad (45 in 2017) by providing funding for travel expenses, legal assistance, job placement, and other reintegration services. In 2018, the government conducted 259 labor inspections at on-land seafood processing workplaces and found 88 cases of labor law violations. The government employed 84 language coordinators (74 in 2017) and 69 interpreters (74 in 2017) in 2018. @hrw letter to Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha https://t.co/TIE3frGfSnpic.twitter.com/yYG9hBGodF, By subscribing, you accept the terms and conditions in our, ©2021 Bangkok Post Public Company Limited, Tourists tapped to fight human trafficking. Jordan Clark's 2005 documentary Falang: Behind Bangkok's Smile takes a rather critical view of sex tourism in Thailand. • Proactively investigate and prosecute officials allegedly complicit in facilitating trafficking, and convict and punish those found guilty with adequate sentences. MOL officers screened the travel documents of departing Thai workers at border checkpoints and denied their departure if they deemed the documentation suspicious. The Human Trafficking Criminal Procedures Act allowed judges to award compensation or restitution to victims, including in the absence of a victim request for these funds. • Increase the provision of financial compensation and restitution to victims. Only victims who received permission to work outside shelters could leave the shelter on a regular basis for work. Members of ethnic minorities, highland persons, and stateless persons in Thailand have experienced instances of abuse indicative of trafficking. The government continued to refer victims to government-operated shelters where they had access to counseling, legal assistance, medical care, civil compensation, financial aid, witness protection, education or vocational trainings, and employment. The Thai government identified 720 trafficking victims of all types in 2015, up from 595 in 2014. Children from Thailand, Burma, Laos, and Cambodia are victims of sex trafficking in brothels, massage parlors, bars, karaoke lounges, hotels, and private residences. As a sector, we must do everything in our power to help eradicate the problem so that people may move freely and safely … In 2018, the government provided 6.15 million baht ($190,110) to trafficking victims from its anti-trafficking fund, compared to 5.6 million baht ($173,110) in 2017. Thai authorities held bilateral meetings with neighboring countries to facilitate information sharing and evidence gathering in trafficking cases. Last year a record 35 million tourists visited the country, and the government expects it to rise to 37.6 million this year. Its victims often end up being sexually exploited in travel and tourist destinations around the globe. #EndTrafficking https://t.co/9xfHNAMhS9. MSDHS and MOL operated hotlines with operators fluent in 12 foreign languages. “Human trafficking is a devastating, widespread and critical issue that unfortunately relies on travel and tourism networks to operate. MSDHS shelters did not provide specialized care to boys and LGBTI victims; in addition, authorities required transgender victims to stay in shelters based on their sex assigned at birth. You will get the updates within 24 hours. The Southeast Asian nation is consistently ranked as one of the world's best tourists destinations. Commissioner, Torsak said the raid was led by the commander of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Division, […] The government worked with foreign law enforcement officials, international organizations, and NGOs to develop several manuals and guidelines to institutionalize and standardize trainings related to human trafficking. The government permitted 65 victims to work outside shelters—a decrease from 149 in 2017—and was less likely to grant female victims this right to work. Specifically, the paper looks at one form of human trafficking, the global sex industry and the relationship between sex trafficking and sex tourism. Although authorities have prosecuted some boat captains in prior years, observers continued to report a reluctance by some law enforcement officials to investigate boat captains whom they perceived to have connections with politicians. Corruption and official complicity facilitated trafficking and continued to impede anti-trafficking efforts. "Every effort is important," Weerachon Sukhontapatipak, a Thai government spokesman told the Thomson Reuters Foundation. For example, the government allowed migrants to obtain 30-day and 90-day border passes to work in non-seasonal agricultural or manufacturing jobs but such temporary working arrangements did not provide workers access to social protections. "There are certain people who believe you should separate prostitution from trafficking, saying one is work and the other is slavery," says Bien-Aime. From airports to shopping malls, the country is ramping up a campaign targeting tourists in its latest effort to keep the country free from human trafficking, as officials eye better international ratings. The Australia-based group is training hotel staff in the seaside resort of Pattaya - a hotspot for sex tourism - on how to spot trafficking signs. Opinnäytetyön aihe on ihmis-kaupan ja turismin väliset suhteet. NGOs also reported MSDHS shelters lacked culturally appropriate services for victims originating from outside Southeast Asia; however, the government allowed a group of African victims to reside in one of the NGO-registered shelters that provided culturally appropriate care during the reporting period. Perpetrators will be severely punished,” it says, followed by a hotline number for people to report cases. PIPO centers conducted 78,623 inspections in 2018 and found 511 vessels operating in violation of the law. These are named “Welfare Protection Centers for Victims Lucky for Some: Chinese City Launches Wind Power Lottery to Ease Grid Strains. A video flashes the message: "Keep Thailand the Land of Smiles for all". • Increase efforts to ensure employers provide workers copies of contracts in a language they understand. The government could only provide temporary assistance to potential victims for up to eight days, and formal identification by MDTs was necessary for victims to obtain a legal right to services. Employers reportedly convinced Thai law enforcement to bring criminal charges against exploited workers for theft when workers attempted to leave or change jobs. It is also a hotbed of human trafficking and abuse. The Government of Thailand does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so. Labor inspectors could be held personally liable for claims of abuse of power under Thai law, which may have discouraged them from reporting suspected exploitation. The late 1700s to the 1850s witnessed an influx in the number of Chinese labor workers and sex workers coming to Thailand. The government utilized administrative punishments against some suspected complicit officials, such as suspensions or transfers to new positions, rather than subjecting them to criminal prosecutions; the government expelled seven officials suspected of complicity from government service in 2018 but only reported initiating prosecutions against three. Some government officials profit from bribes and direct involvement in extortion from and exploitation of migrants. Some officials failed to recognize trafficking cases that did not involve physical force or overt signs of coercion; officials did not routinely identify victims who initially consented to travel to Thailand or consented to work in the industry in which they were later exploited. Some parents or brokers force children from Thailand, Cambodia, and Burma to sell flowers, beg, or work in domestic service in urban areas. The Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture (1993) once … Prosecutors frequently looked for evidence of physical force in labor trafficking cases. The Office of the Judiciary also organized a seminar for interpreters working on trafficking cases in the courts. We need the hotel groups, we need the tourists, we need everybody who can to join in," Enlund said. In addition, the Thai Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force (TICAC) investigated 19 cases of internet-facilitated child sex trafficking (18 in 2017). In 2018, the government convicted 16 officials complicit in trafficking crimes (12 in 2017), sentencing them to terms of imprisonment ranging from five to 50 years; 10 of 16 convicted officials were sentenced to more than 15 years’ imprisonment. In shopping malls, cinemas and train stations across the capital, Bangkok, videos show visitors how to look out for signs of human trafficking. Such practices deterred victims and advocates from reporting abuses to authorities. There has also been a rise of "advocacy tourism", where holiday-makers sign up for travel packages to learn about issues like modern slavery. This paper aims to explore the dark side of the relationship between gender, mobility, migration and tourism. The Command Center for Combatting Illegal Fishing (CCCIF), led by the Royal Thai Navy, operated 32 port-in port-out (PIPO) centers and 19 additional forward inspection points, which performed inspections to verify whether fishing vessels were operating legally. The government only permitted foreign victims who held a valid visa or work permit at the time of their identification to stay outside government shelters during legal proceedings against their traffickers. However, the government did not report whether labor inspections resulted in the identification of any trafficking victims. Traffickers subject Thai nationals to forced labor and sex trafficking in Thailand and in countries in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Equality Now says human trafficking is a natural outgrowth of sex tourism, whether that tourism involves prostitution or ping pong shows. Da ich jetzt wach bin, höre ich jedes Wort der Unterhaltung: „Do want to have a drink?“, „No, thanks“, „Okay, than take your clothes off“. In one case, the RTP coordinated with Cambodian authorities to bring 15 repatriated Cambodian victims to a Thai border provincial court to provide video testimony. Bar girls aren't the only commodity sex tourists seek in Thailand. Labor inspectors working in PIPO teams verified crew lists using biometric data and worker interviews. The government did not report investigating illegal salary deductions. Advocates reported a need for the government to increase training of front-line police to better identify potential victims. Sex trafficking victims are classified differently from sex workers. In addition, employers rarely provided workers a contract to keep or in their language. More Pressure Needed on Myanmar to Take Back Rohingya: Bangladeshi PM. About 45 minutes outside of Pattaya, past shanties and roadside stalls selling mangoes, I arrive at the Anti-Human Trafficking and Child Abuse Center. The government reported investigating only 43 cases of forced labor—including six cases of trafficking in the fishing sector—compared to 47 in 2017 and 83 in 2016. Doch ich realisiere, dass nicht unsere Tür aufgeschlossen wird sondern die zum Nebenzimmer. Undocumented foreign victims of trafficking were required to remain in shelters while the government processed applications for permits to stay and work in Thailand. The government provided approximately 2.4 million baht ($74,190) for witness protection services for 15 witnesses in trafficking cases in 2018, compared to 4.3 million baht ($132,920) for 52 witnesses in 2017. The government prosecuted and convicted fewer traffickers and investigated only 43 cases of labor trafficking. For the first time, MOL referred suspected cases of labor trafficking to MDTs, resulting in the identification of six labor trafficking victims in 2018. The government reported that law enforcement made arrests in a number of major sex and labor trafficking networks. Thai law legally obligated prosecutors to file restitution claims when a victim expressed intention to make a claim. CCCIF implemented a system to inspect vessels based on risk assessments and reported it inspected all vessels placed in the “high-risk” category, as well as a percentage of medium- and low-risk vessels. The government operated specialized anti-trafficking divisions within the Bangkok Criminal Court, office of the attorney general (OAG), and the Royal Thai Police (RTP). However, NGOs reported the regulations on recruitment fees were poorly defined and enforced, and recruitment agencies and brokers still required workers to pay recruitment fees and transportation costs. Some trafficking victims in the fishing sector had difficulty returning home due to isolated workplaces, unpaid wages, and the lack of legitimate identity documents or safe means to travel. Some are paid little or irregularly, incur debts from brokers and employers, work as much as 18 to 20 hours per day for seven days a week, and without adequate food, water or medical supplies. PHUKET, Thailand-- Thailand's sex tourism industry is primarily driven by acute poverty. "This is a step in the right direction," said Malina Enlund from the anti-trafficking group A21, which has partnered with Thai authorities on the campaign since mid-2017. The government conducted numerous training sessions, seminars, and workshops for police, prosecutors, and judges; trainings focused on anti-trafficking laws, improving efficiency of investigations, prosecution of labor trafficking cases, and victim identification. The government amended the anti-trafficking law in 2015 to provide protection to whistleblowers but did not report applying this new provision. NGOs reported a decline in the prevalence of forced child begging following the passage of the 2016 Beggar Control Act, which provided for health and social services to beggars, including trafficking victims. Die Wände sind dünn und ich höre die Stimme eines jungen Europäers und die einer Asiatin. In 2018, the government inspected 67 migrant worker recruitment agencies (compared to 97 in 2017) and found four operating in violation of the law. From the mid-1300s to the mid-1700s prostitutionwas legal and taxed by the Thai government. Perpetrators will be severely punished," it says, followed by a hotline number for people to report cases. are about 300 trafficking victims in Thailand per year.3 Between 2003 and 2008, statistics show that around 130 people from Thailand’s hilltribe have been rescued from human traffickers. In addition, some judges lacked sufficient understanding of trauma-informed care, which resulted in harmful treatment of victims during court proceedings. Some victims continued to report reluctance to participate in prosecutions due to fears of detention and extended shelter stays, fears of experiencing retaliation from traffickers, and language barriers. The government increased efforts to protect victims. • Consistently staff government hotlines and shelters with interpreters. MSDHS introduced the use of victim impact statements in courts to assist in obtaining compensation and in 2018 six victims filed statements. Additionally, Mexico is considered both a country of origin for many victims and a transiting country into the United States, with an estimated 5,000 children and women being brought into the United States each year [15,16]. The government continued to grant citizenship to stateless persons in 2018. In 2018, government hotlines received 161 calls related to possible trafficking cases, including at least 18 involving forced labor (172 calls in 2017 and 269 calls in 2016), leading to the prosecution of 63 cases (73 cases in 2017). MSDHS employed 251 interpreters, but government shelters often lacked sufficient numbers of interpreters, which weakened their ability to provide adequate services to victims, particularly psychological care. The Thailand Anti-Trafficking in Persons Task Force (TATIP), which specialized in investigating complex cases and comprised law enforcement, social workers, and NGOs, investigated 29 cases in 2018, resulting in the prosecution of 69 offenders. TIMELINE: China-Myanmar Relations. About 45 minutes outside of Pattaya, past shanties and roadside stalls selling mangos, I arrive at the Anti-Human Trafficking and Child Abuse Center. An estimated 5.5 million of these are children. • Foster an environment conducive to reporting human trafficking crimes without fear of criminal prosecution, including spurious retributive charges pursued by employers. MSDHS reported it assigned social workers to maintain contact with victims for at least one year after their reintegration. • Support the development of victim-centric and trauma-informed approaches among judges overseeing trafficking cases. Provincial labor offices required workers recruited under MOUs to present many documents that workers often could not provide without brokers’ assistance in order to approve job changes. Some NGOs’ perceptions of high levels of corruption made them reluctant to work with the government or certain agencies in some cases. In 2018, the government inspected 364 employment agencies that recruited Thai workers and found unlawful practices in seven, resulting in license suspensions and monetary seizures. To discourage child sex tourism, the government coordinated with foreign governments to deny entry to known sex offenders, and produced and displayed a video discouraging child sex tourism in Thai airports and on Thai airline flights. Most victims of human trafficking in Thailand are, in fact, of Thai nationality – The majority of trafficking victims identified in Thailand are Thai nationals, trafficked both domestically and internationally. Nonetheless, observers reported labor officials interviewed workers in the presence of their employers and brokers at post-arrival centers, which could deter workers from reporting exploitation. The Southeast Asian nation is consistently ranked as one of the world's best tourist destinations. In addition, the government issued guidelines on the prosecution of individuals who violate laws protecting sea fishers, which provided labor inspectors with standard operating procedures for filing suspected cases of labor trafficking to police. 2551 (2008) designates the MSDHS as the govern-ment agency responsible for assisting victims of human trafficking. • Increase collaboration with local civil society organizations in migrant worker assistance centers, post-arrival centers, and government shelters, including in the provision of services to victims. In addition, MSDHS signed MOUs with relevant government agencies to improve the execution of court orders for offenders to pay compensation and restitution. This negative image has been widely and wildly publicised through the impact of global media. A growing number of countries around the world are turning to the tourism sector to help combat human trafficking, including training frontline hotel and airline staff to spot the signs. "We are doing our best," he said. As reported over the past five years, human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Thailand, and traffickers exploit Thai victims abroad. Observers reported MDTs were sometimes reluctant to make identifications unless a case was likely to result in a successful prosecution. The government registered three NGO shelters during the reporting period that were able to provide services to victims under government authority, although it did not provide these shelters with additional funding to support their operations. In addition, NGOs and international organizations widely reported the government did not adequately enforce minimum wage laws and lacked legislation mandating minimum wages in sectors with high employment of migrant workers, such as seasonal agriculture. • Inspect employment locations in border regions with workers employed under border-employment arrangements for trafficking. At Thai airports, banners greet visitors with warnings that human trafficking could "destroy" the country. Observers reported the capacity of some provincial labor inspectors to identify potential victims improved. These efforts included identifying more victims, sentencing convicted traffickers and complicit officials to significant prison terms, developing several manuals in partnership with civil society to standardize anti-trafficking trainings and policies. MDTs, which comprised government agencies and NGOs, utilized standard screening guidelines to formally identify victims and refer them to services. According to UNHCR, the UN’s refugee agency, as of 2013 there were at least three million migrant workers in … Officials inspected 7,497 adult entertainment businesses in 2018, leading to the prosecution of seven trafficking cases and the five-year suspension of licenses of 97 businesses for unspecified violations of law. The government demonstrated overall increasing efforts compared to the previous reporting period; therefore Thailand remained on Tier 2. Thailand's sex industry is a human trafficking destination. Implementation of identification procedures by MDTs continued to be inconsistent, especially outside major cities. From airports to shopping malls, Thailand is ramping up a campaign targeting tourists in its latest effort to keep the country free from human trafficking, as officials eye better international ratings. While the government made efforts to reduce the length of prosecutions and thereby decrease the amount of time victims had to stay in shelters, NGOs reported the required shelter stays deterred victims from cooperating with law enforcement. ™ Both internal and cross-border trafficking occur in and from Thailand, for sex and labour exploitation. “Human trafficking and slavery are against the law in Thailand. Prostitution flourished especially after the abolishment of slavery in 1905 as former slave wives under the feudal system found themselves alone and without financial support. The government restricted the movement and communication of victims residing in government shelters, official complicity continued to impede anti-trafficking efforts, and officials did not consistently identify cases of trafficking, especially labor trafficking. As recently as 2015, there were reports of separatist groups in southern Thailand recruiting and using children to commit acts of arson or serve as scouts. The lack of a requirement that employment contracts be written in both Thai and workers’ languages, lack of clear guidance to measure work and rest hours for workers aboard fishing vessels, and difficulty for workers to change employers heightened the risk of trafficking. In recent months, it partnered with airlines and charities to warn visitors against involvement in trafficking, while urging them to spot and report potential cases. Authorities did not consistently identify male child victims, which resulted in some being sent to immigration detention facilities or treated as law violators, rather than being offered victim services. MSDHS coordinated with TATIP to train multidisciplinary team (MDT) participants as victim specialists to improve victim identification and evidence collection. While the number of migrant workers entering Thailand through bilateral MOUs continued to increase, high costs, difficulties in obtaining identity documents in home countries, and administrative barriers to change employers continued to impede greater usage of this mechanism. But there are guilty parties involved on many fronts when it comes to the link between sex work and human trafficking in Thailand — and most of the guilt rests with tourists themselves. Children from Thailand, Burma, Laos, and Cambodia are victims of sex trafficking in brothels, massage parlors, bars, karaoke lounges, hotels, and private residences. TRAFFICKING UNDER THE VEIL OF SEX TOURISM IN THAILAND – REACTIONS OF THE EU Izlaganje na znanstvenom skupu UDK: 343.431(5-12) 343.544(5-12) Zrinka Gugić, PhD student University of Osijek PhD School for Social Sciences and Humanities HUMAN TRAFFICKING UNDER THE VEIL OF SEX TOURISM IN THAILAND – REACTIONS OF THE EU Abstract : The statistics shows that considering the … 13 January 2020. 18 April 2018. Labor traffickers exploit migrant workers in commercial fishing and related industries, the poultry industry, manufacturing, agriculture, domestic work, and street begging. An official website of the United States government, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, Office of the U.S. Corrupt immigration officials facilitate trafficking by accepting bribes from brokers and smugglers along Thai borders. 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